GET /2/users/by/username/:username

Returns a variety of information about one or more users specified by their usernames.



Endpoint URL

https://api.twitter.com/2/users/by/username/:username

Authentication and rate limits

Authentication methods
supported by this endpoint

OAuth 1.0a User context

OAuth 2.0 Bearer token

Rate limit

300 requests per 15-minute window (app auth)

900 requests per 15-minute window (user auth)

Learn more about rate limits.



Path parameters

NameTypeDescription
username
 Required 
stringThe Twitter username (handle) of the user.


Query parameters

NameTypeDescription
expansions
 Optional 
enum (pinned_tweet_id)Expansions enable you to request additional data objects that relate to the originally returned users. The ID that represents the expanded data object will be included directly in the user data object, but the expanded object metadata will be returned within the includes response object, and will also include the ID so that you can match this data object to the original Tweet object. At this time, the only expansion available to endpoints that primarily return user objects is expansions=pinned_tweet_id. You will find the expanded Tweet data object living in the includes response object.
tweet.fields
 Optional 
enum (attachments, author_id, context_annotations, conversation_id, created_at, entities, geo, id, in_reply_to_user_id, lang, non_public_metrics, public_metrics, organic_metrics, promoted_metrics, possibly_sensitive, referenced_tweets, reply_settings, source, text, withheld)This fields parameter enables you to select which specific Tweet fields will deliver in each returned pinned Tweet. Specify the desired fields in a comma-separated list without spaces between commas and fields. The Tweet fields will only return if the user has a pinned Tweet and if you've also included the expansions=pinned_tweet_id query parameter in your request. While the referenced Tweet ID will be located in the original Tweet object, you will find this ID and all additional Tweet fields in the includes data object.
user.fields
 Optional 
enum (created_at, description, entities, id, location, name, pinned_tweet_id, profile_image_url, protected, public_metrics, url, username, verified, withheld)This fields parameter enables you to select which specific user fields will deliver with each returned users objects. Specify the desired fields in a comma-separated list without spaces between commas and fields. These specified user fields will display directly in the user data objects.


Example requests

  • cURL (default fields)
  • cURL (optional fields)
      curl "https://api.twitter.com/2/users/by/username/TwitterDev" -H "Authorization: Bearer $BEARER_TOKEN"
    
      curl "https://api.twitter.com/2/users/by/username/TwitterDev?expansions=pinned_tweet_id&user.fields=created_at&tweet.fields=created_at" -H "Authorization: Bearer $BEARER_TOKEN"
    

Example responses

  • Default fields
  • Optional fields
      {
  "data": {
    "id": "2244994945",
    "name": "Twitter Dev",
    "username": "TwitterDev"
  }
}
    
      {
  "data": {
    "username": "TwitterDev",
    "created_at": "2013-12-14T04:35:55.000Z",
    "pinned_tweet_id": "1255542774432063488",
    "id": "2244994945",
    "name": "Twitter Dev"
  },
  "includes": {
    "tweets": [
      {
        "text": "During these unprecedented times, what’s happening on Twitter can help the world better understand & respond to the pandemic. nnWe're launching a free COVID-19 stream endpoint so qualified devs & researchers can study the public conversation in real-time. https://t.co/BPqMcQzhId",
        "created_at": "2020-04-29T17:01:38.000Z",
        "id": "1255542774432063488"
      }
    ]
  }
}
    

Response fields

NameTypeDescription
id
 Default 
stringUnique identifier of this user. This is returned as a string in order to avoid complications with languages and tools that cannot handle large integers.
name
 Default 
stringThe friendly name of this user, as shown on their profile.
username
 Default 
stringThe Twitter handle (screen name) of this user.
created_atdate (ISO 8601)Creation time of this account.

To return this field, add user.fields=created_at in the request's query parameter.
protectedbooleanIndicates if this user has chosen to protect their Tweets (in other words, if this user's Tweets are private).

To return this field, add user.fields=protected in the request's query parameter.
withheldobjectContains withholding details for withheld content.

To return this field, add user.fields=withheld in the request's query parameter.
withheld.country_codesarrayProvides a list of countries where this user is not available.

To return this field, add user.fields=withheld.country_codes in the request's query parameter.
withheld.scopeenum (tweet, user)Indicates whether the content being withheld is a Tweet or a user (this API will return user).

To return this field, add user.fields=withheld.scope in the request's query parameter.
locationstringThe location specified in the user's profile, if the user provided one. As this is a freeform value, it may not indicate a valid location, but it may be fuzzily evaluated when performing searches with location queries.

To return this field, add user.fields=location in the request's query parameter.
urlstringThe URL specified in the user's profile, if present.

To return this field, add user.fields=url in the request's query parameter.
descriptionstringThe text of this user's profile description (also known as bio), if the user provided one.

To return this field, add user.fields=description in the request's query parameter.
verifiedbooleanIndicate if this user is a verified Twitter user.

To return this field, add user.fields=verified in the request's query parameter.
entitiesobjectThis object and its children fields contain details about text that has a special meaning in the user's description.

To return this field, add user.fields=entities in the request's query parameter.
entities.urlarrayContains details about the user's profile website.
entities.url.urlsarrayContains details about the user's profile website.
entities.url.urls.startintegerThe start position (zero-based) of the recognized user's profile website.
entities.url.urls.endintegerThe end position (zero-based) of the recognized user's profile website.
entities.url.urls.urlstringThe URL in the format entered by the user.
entities.url.urls.expanded_urlstringThe fully resolved URL.
entities.url.urls.display_urlstringThe URL as displayed in the user's profile.
entities.descriptionarrayContains details about URLs, Hashtags, Cashtags, or mentions located within a user's description.
entities.description.urlsarrayContains details about any URLs included in the user's description.
entities.description.urls.startintegerThe start position (zero-based) of the recognized URL in the user's description.
entities.description.urls.endintegerThe end position (zero-based) of the recognized URL in the user's description.
entities.description.urls.urlstringThe URL in the format entered by the user.
entities.description.urls.expanded_urlstringThe fully resolved URL.
entities.description.urls.display_urlstringThe URL as displayed in the user's description.
entities.description.hashtagsarrayContains details about text recognized as a Hashtag.
entities.description.hashtags.startintegerThe start position (zero-based) of the recognized Hashtag within the Tweet.
entities.description.hashtags.endintegerThe end position (zero-based) of the recognized Hashtag within the Tweet.
entities.description.hashtags.hashtagstringThe text of the Hashtag.
entities.description.mentionsarrayContains details about text recognized as a user mention.
entities.description.mentions.startintegerThe start position (zero-based) of the recognized user mention within the Tweet.
entities.description.mentions.endintegerThe end position (zero-based) of the recognized user mention within the Tweet.
entities.description.mentions.usernamestringThe part of text recognized as a user mention.
entities.description.cashtagsarrayContains details about text recognized as a Cashtag.
entities.description.cashtags.startintegerThe start position (zero-based) of the recognized Cashtag within the Tweet.
entities.description.cashtags.endintegerThe end position (zero-based) of the recognized Cashtag within the Tweet.
entities.description.cashtags.cashtagstringThe text of the Cashtag.
profile_image_urlstringThe URL to the profile image for this user, as shown on the user's profile.
public_metricsobjectContains details about activity for this user.
public_metrics.followers_countintegerNumber of users who follow this user.
public_metrics.following_countintegerNumber of users this user is following.
public_metrics.tweet_countintegerNumber of Tweets (including Retweets) posted by this user.
public_metrics.listed_countintegerNumber of lists that include this user.
pinned_tweet_idstringUnique identifier of this user's pinned Tweet.

You can obtain the expanded object in includes.tweets by adding expansions=pinned_tweet_id in the request's query parameter.
includes.tweetsarrayWhen including the expansions=pinned_tweet_id parameter, this includes the pinned Tweets attached to the returned users' profiles in the form of Tweet objects with their default fields and any additional fields requested using the tweet.fields parameter, assuming there is a referenced Tweet present in the returned Tweet(s).
errorsobjectContains details about errors that affected any of the requested users. See Status codes and error messages for more details.
Was this document helpful?
Thank you

Thank you for the feedback. We’re really glad we could help!

Thank you for the feedback. How could we improve this document?
Thank you for the feedback. Your comments will help us improve our documents in the future.