Products for researchers

Find the right data for your study


From insight to support your thesis, to large-scale projects at research labs, we have you covered.

Three ways to access Twitter data to further your research

Academic Research product track

This specialized track on the new Twitter API grants free access to full-archive search and other v2 endpoints, a higher Tweet volume cap, as well as enhanced features and functionality to get more precise, complete, and unbiased data for analyzing the public conversation. To use this product track, you need to submit your use case through the Academic Research application.

Enterprise API

This provides managed, paid services to access advanced reliability and scalability features on the v1.1 Twitter API. While the Academic Research track will serve all research needs, we are still building access elevations in the v2 API. Until this work is complete, the Enterprise API can serve institutions, organizations, and labs that require custom access and Twitter support.

Curated datasets

These free, no-code datasets are intended to make it easier for developers and academics to study topics that are of frequent interest to the research community. They are purpose-built, predefined, comprehensive datasets of all public Tweets related to a specific topic.

Is the Academic Research product track right for you?

New and existing Twitter developers need to complete an Academic Research application to access this track. You’re encouraged to apply if you meet the following criteria:

  1. You are either a master’s student, doctoral candidate, post-doc, faculty, or research-focused employee at an academic institution or university.

  2. You have a clearly defined research objective, and you have specific plans for how you intend to use, analyze, and share Twitter data from your research.
    More about Project details

  3. You will use this product track for non-commercial purposes.
    More about non-commercial use

If you don’t meet all of the requirements above, the Standard product track might be a better fit, as it serves the broadest range of use cases and developers on the new Twitter API. This is ideal for commercial research, learning how to use the Twitter API, teaching, and building for fun or good causes.

  • Academic Research
  • Enterprise APIs
  • Track Comparison

Academic Research product track

Full-archive search

Search the complete history of public Tweets based on your filters

Details

This endpoint lets you search the full history of public Tweets, and delivers complete data based on your filters in a request-response model with pagination. It also supports a more advanced query language (boolean) to help yield more precise filtered results. This endpoint is ideal for understanding longitudinal trends and analyzing historical topics or events of interest.

Common use cases

  • Historical topic or event analysis
  • Longitudinal studies

Enhancements on the Academic Research product track

  • Available for free as a core component of the Academic Research product track
  • Additional advanced operators (e.g. geo, bio filtering)
  • Increased character limit on query rules to 1024 characterse

Compared to Historical PowerTrack API and Full-Archive Search on Premium v1.1 API   

  • Access the same full history of public Twitter data
  • New query operators that support conversation_ids and Tweet annotations
  • New expansion parameter allows you to pull user, media, place, and poll metadata, with the ability to specify the fields you receive in your response
  • Supports pagination tokens to help you obtain all of the results for your request if they are too large to fit in a single response

Documentation

Recent search

Search the last 7 days of public Tweets 
based on your filters

Details

This endpoint lets you search the last 7 days of public Tweets, and delivers complete data based on your filters in a request-response model with pagination, and supports sorting by time. This endpoint is suited for analyzing recent, specific topics or events of interest.

Common use cases

  • Topic discovery
  • Data exploration
  • Retrieve example Tweets

Enhancements on the Academic Research product track

  • Returns complete, full-fidelity results, removing some of the biases introduced by the v1.1 version’s relevance and quality-focused sampling to serve consumer use cases
  • Additional, advanced operators (e.g. geo, bio filtering)
  • Increased character limit on search query rules (1024 characters)

Compared to v1.1 search/Tweets endpoint

  • New query operators that support conversation_ids and Tweet annotations
  • New expansion parameter allows you to pull user, media, place, and poll metadata, with the ability to specify the fields you receive in your response
  • Returns complete, full-fidelity results, removing some of the biases introduced by the v1.1 version’s relevance and quality-focused sampling to serve consumer use cases
  • Supports pagination tokens to help you obtain all of the results for your request if they are too large to fit in a single response

Documentation

Filtered stream

Stream public Tweets in real-time based on your filters

Details

This endpoint delivers complete data in real-time based on your filters. This makes it uniquely suitable for identifying the emergence of specific topics or events, provided you are connected to this stream when it occurs.

This is not a sample of data, but once the stream’s velocity or throughput exceeds your access level’s data limit, it will begin to drop Tweets. Currently, this endpoint is available at the Basic access level and the volume is capped at 1%. \

Common use cases

  • Topic analysis|
  • Event detection
  • Real-time event analysis

Enhancements on the Academic Research product track

  • Additional advanced operators (e.g. geo, bio filtering)
  • Increased character limit on query rules to 1024 characters
  • Increased rule cap supports up to 1,000 concurrent rules

Compared to v1.1 statuses/filter endpoint 

Documentation

Sampled stream

Sample ~1% of all new Tweets in real-time

Details

All connections to this endpoint will deliver a randomized 1% sample of new, public Tweets. Since this endpoint captures a sample of all conversations happening on Twitter, it is well suited for analyses that amass a statistically significant amount of randomized data over time. As this is a sample, it is not recommended for precisely pinpointing when trends or events emerge. All connections deliver the same deterministic random sample.

Common use cases

  • Longitudinal analysis of macro trends
  • Longitudinal analysis of specific topics
  • Topics related to scale of data
  • Projects only requiring a sampled dataset

Compared to v1.1 statuses/sample endpoint    

  • New expansion parameter allows you to pull user, media, place, and poll metadata, with the ability to specify the fields you receive in your response

Documentation:

Tweet lookup

Look up Tweets by ID

Details

This endpoint provides up-to-date details on a Tweet, to hydrate an ID from another source, to verify that a Tweet is available, or to update your stored details following a compliance event.

Common use cases

  • Research replication and validation
  • Hydrate Tweet objects from other datasets

Compared to v1.1 statuses/lookup endpoint

  • New expansion parameter allows you to pull user, media, place, and poll metadata, with the ability to specify the fields you receive in your response

Documentation

User lookup

Look up users by name or ID

Details

This endpoint provides up-to-date details on a user, to hydrate an ID from another source, to verify that a user exists, or to update your stored details following a compliance event.Common use cases.

Common use cases

  • Research replication and validation
  • Hydrate user objects from other datasets

Documentation

Follows lookup endpoints

See the relationships between people on the platform

Details

Follow endpoints refer to a group of endpoints that enable you to retrieve an account’s followers and who they follow. Follows lookup is commonly used in research to understand relationship networks on Twitter. While less relevant for research uses, these endpoints also let people manage their follow relationships through a developer app.

Common use cases

  • Understand networks, communities and movements
  • Understand the relationship between subjects
  • Understand the spread of information

Compared to v1.1 follow graph endpoints

  • New expansion parameter allows you to pull user, media, place, and poll metadata, with the ability to specify the fields you receive in your response
  • Supports pagination tokens to help you obtain all of the results for your request if they are too large to fit in a single response

Documentation

User Tweet timeline &
User mention timeline

Look up Tweets written by or mentioning a specific userhandle

Details

These endpoints request Tweets composed by, or any Tweets that mention, a specific entity on Twitter. They deliver complete data based on your specified @user. This can assist with analysis of a public figure or organization, or peoples’ interactions with that person or organization. Note that individual surveillance with this data is a restricted use case, and this is strictly enforced.

Common use cases

  • Understand sentiment, topics, and media shared by a prominent public figure or organization
  • Understand peoples’ overall sentiment, topics, and how they engage when they mention a prominent public figure or organization
  • In conjunction with other endpoints, understand the connection of networks and information across people on Twitter

Compared to v1.1 statuses/user_timeline and /mentions_timeline endpoints

  • New query operators that support conversation_ids and Tweet annotations
  • New expansion parameter allows you to pull user, media, place, and poll metadata, with the ability to specify the fields you receive in your response
  • Supports pagination tokens to help you obtain all of the results for your request if they are too large to fit in a single response
  • Supports start_time and end_time parameters in your requests to bound results to a specified time period

Documentation

Hide replies

Allows people hide replies to a Tweet

Details

This endpoint lets user-authorized apps hide replies to their Tweets. Twitter’s research showed that this feature helped people limit the impact of abusive, distracting, or misleading replies to their posts. This can be helpful for applied research projects that support a healthier experience on Twitter.

Common use cases

  • Building an app with features to help people feel more safe and comfortable having conversations on Twitter
  • Used in combination with search endpoints to assess the impact of hiding replies in a conversation

Documentation

Enterprise APIs

PowerTrack API

Stream public Tweets in real-time based on a set of boolean rules

Details

This endpoint is the enterprise-level alternative to the v2 filtered stream and v1.1 statuses/filter endpoint. It supports enhanced filter language (boolean) and reliability features that prevent data loss. Many of these enhanced features are available through the Academic Research product track for free, so this paid solution is best for large-scale projects that require managed Twitter support for reliability and scalability.

Common use cases

  • Topical analysis
  • Event detection
  • Real-time event analysis

Documentation

Historical PowerTrack API

Get a job-based file download of all historical Tweets based on a set of boolean rules

Details

This solution provides a custom, job-based file download of all historical Tweets based on your set of boolean rules. This endpoint is intended for well-funded organizations, institutions, and labs seeking greater, custom levels of access in order to run multiple jobs by API each month. Data is only available in JSON format (not CSV/TSV), and requires the ability to download a large number of data files in parallel. This is a paid, managed alternative to v2 full-archive search which is available for free with self-serve access through the Academic Research product track.

Common use cases

  • Historical topic analysis
  • Historical event detection and analysis
  • Longitudinal studies

Documentation

Decahose API

Sample 10% of all new Tweets in real-time

Details

All connections to this endpoint will deliver an equivalent randomized 10% sample of new, public Tweets that match the query. This is best suited for analyses that will amass a statistically significant amount of randomized data over time. This endpoint is the larger data sample equivalent of the v2 sampled stream.

Common use cases

  • Trend and event detection
  • Approaches to data processing and pipelines
  • Topics related to scale of data
  • Projects only requiring a sampled dataset

Documentation

v1.1 to v2 comparison

Advantages of the new Twitter API

The Twitter API v2 introduces a number of existing and planned enhancements for greater flexibility, efficiency, and a consistent experience across endpoints. Improvements with v2 include:

  • A new payload with additional detailed data objects such as polls, places, reply settings, and media types

  • Ability to specify the exact fields to return in a Tweet payload by using fields and expansions

  • Insight on Tweet topics with annotations

  • Advanced query and filter capabilities

  • Pagination to retrieve all results for a request

  • Improved conversation tracking with conversation ID

  • Consistency across endpoints so objects returned, features, and behaviors of the API are uniform across similar endpoints 

  • Future added access levels across all product tracks on the v2 API will let you more easily scale your usage as needed

Comparing v1.1 endpoints to v2 endpoints

Compare v1.1 endpoints to v2 endpoints available in the chart below

For more information comparing v1.1 and v2 endpoints and payloads, visit the migration hub

v1.1 endpoint

v2 endpoint

Included in Standard track (v2)

Included in Academic Researchers track (v2)

v1.1 endpoint

statuses/show
statuses/lookup

v2 endpoint

Tweet lookup

Included in Standard track (v2)

Included in Academic Researchers track (v2)

v1.1 endpoint

search/Tweets

v2 endpoint

recent search

Included in Standard track (v2)

Included in Academic Researchers track (v2)

v1.1 endpoint

statuses/user_timeline
statuses/mentions_timeline

v2 endpoint

user Tweet timeline
user mention timeline

Included in Standard track (v2)

Included in Academic Researchers track (v2)

v1.1 endpoint

statuses/filter

v2 endpoint

filtered stream

Included in Standard track (v2)

Included in Academic Researchers track (v2)

v1.1 endpoint

users/show
users/lookup

v2 endpoint

user lookup

Included in Standard track (v2)

Included in Academic Researchers track (v2)

v1.1 endpoint

Follow graph:
followers/ids
followers/list
friends/ids
friends/list

v2 endpoint

follows lookup

Included in Standard track (v2)

Included in Academic Researchers track (v2)

v1.1 endpoint

N/A

v2 endpoint

hide replies

Included in Standard track (v2)

Included in Academic Researchers track (v2)

v1.1 endpoint

Premium API: search Tweets (30 days) and full-archive search

Enterprise API: Historical PowerTrack

v2 endpoint

full-archive search

Included in Standard track (v2)

Included in Academic Researchers track (v2)

Comparing Standard and Academic Research product tracks on v2

The Academic Research track provides a tailored solution for research use cases, where the Standard product track is a more generalist solution intended to serve the broadest range of developers and use cases. 

See the product track comparison chart below for more information on the similarities and differences between v2 product tracks.
 

Features

Standard product track

Academic Research product track

Features

Most used by...

Standard product track

Anyone interested in getting started with the Twitter API, including creators, students, teachers, builders, and developers of all types

Academic Research product track

Professors, graduate students, and research-focused employees at an academic institution or lab using Twitter data for a non-commercial research study

Features

Monthly Tweet volume cap

Standard product track

500,000 / month

Academic Research product track

10 million / month

Features

Character limit per query/rule

Standard product track

512 characters

Academic Research product track

1024 characters

Features

Operators for filtering

Standard product track

Basic operators

Academic Research product track

Advanced operators

Features

Maximum allowed rules *

Standard product track

25

Academic Research product track

1,000

Features

Backfill for disconnects *

Standard product track

None

Academic Research product track

Coming soon **

Features

Streaming enpoint rate limits *

Standard product track

50 requests / 15 minutes per app

Academic Research product track

Elevations coming soon **


* Applies to streaming endpoints only
** On the roadmap for 2021 release

New v2 endpoints coming soon

New and improved endpoints on the API to help researchers analyze the public conversation will be released as they are ready. Stay up to date by following us on @TwitterDev, or by subscribing to notifications of changes on our product roadmap.

Learn more about Twitter data for academic researchers