Tweet Object

When using enterprise data products, you will notice that much of the data dictionary is similar to the native format of Tweet data, with some additional enriched metadata.  The base level of the native enriched format uses much of the same object names as the Twitter API v1.1 data format.  The Tweet object has a long list of ‘root-level’ attributes, including fundamental attributes such as id, created_at, and text. Tweet objects will also have nested objects to include the user, entities, and extended_entities. Tweet objects will also have other nested Tweet objects such as retweeted_status, quoted_status and extended_tweet.  The native enriched format will additionally have a matching_rules object.

 

Tweet Data Dictionary

Below you will find the data dictionary for these ‘root-level’ attributes, as well as links to child object data dictionaries.

Attribute Type Description
created_at String

UTC time when this Tweet was created. Example:

"created_at": "Wed Oct 10 20:19:24 +0000 2018"
id Int64

The integer representation of the unique identifier for this Tweet. This number is greater than 53 bits and some programming languages may have difficulty/silent defects in interpreting it. Using a signed 64 bit integer for storing this identifier is safe. Use id_str to fetch the identifier to be safe. See Twitter IDs for more information. Example:

"id":1050118621198921728
id_str String

The string representation of the unique identifier for this Tweet. Implementations should use this rather than the large integer in id. Example:

"id_str":"1050118621198921728"
text String

The actual UTF-8 text of the status update. See twitter-text for details on what characters are currently considered valid. Example:

"text":"To make room for more expression, we will now count all emojis as equal—including those with gender‍‍‍ ‍‍and skin t… https://t.co/MkGjXf9aXm"
source String

Utility used to post the Tweet, as an HTML-formatted string. Tweets from the Twitter website have a source value of web.

Example:

"source":"Twitter Web Client"
truncated Boolean

Indicates whether the value of the text parameter was truncated, for example, as a result of a retweet exceeding the original Tweet text length limit of 140 characters. Truncated text will end in ellipsis, like this ... Since Twitter now rejects long Tweets vs truncating them, the large majority of Tweets will have this set to false . Note that while native retweets may have their toplevel text property shortened, the original text will be available under the retweeted_status object and the truncated parameter will be set to the value of the original status (in most cases, false ). Example:

"truncated":true
in_reply_to_status_id Int64

Nullable. If the represented Tweet is a reply, this field will contain the integer representation of the original Tweet’s ID. Example:

"in_reply_to_status_id":1051222721923756032
in_reply_to_status_id_str String

Nullable. If the represented Tweet is a reply, this field will contain the string representation of the original Tweet’s ID. Example:

"in_reply_to_status_id_str":"1051222721923756032"
in_reply_to_user_id Int64

Nullable. If the represented Tweet is a reply, this field will contain the integer representation of the original Tweet’s author ID. This will not necessarily always be the user directly mentioned in the Tweet. Example:

"in_reply_to_user_id":6253282
in_reply_to_user_id_str String

Nullable. If the represented Tweet is a reply, this field will contain the string representation of the original Tweet’s author ID. This will not necessarily always be the user directly mentioned in the Tweet. Example:

"in_reply_to_user_id_str":"6253282"
in_reply_to_screen_name String

Nullable. If the represented Tweet is a reply, this field will contain the screen name of the original Tweet’s author. Example:

"in_reply_to_screen_name":"twitterapi"
user User object

The user who posted this Tweet. See User data dictionary for complete list of attributes.

Example highlighting select attributes:


 { "user": {
    "id": 6253282,
    "id_str": "6253282",
    "name": "Twitter API",
    "screen_name": "TwitterAPI",
    "location": "San Francisco, CA",
    "url": "https://developer.twitter.com",
    "description": "The Real Twitter API. Tweets about API changes, service issues and our Developer Platform. Don't get an answer? It's on my website.",
    "verified": true,
    "followers_count": 6129794,
    "friends_count": 12,
    "listed_count": 12899,
    "favourites_count": 31,
    "statuses_count": 3658,
    "created_at": "Wed May 23 06:01:13 +0000 2007",
    "utc_offset": null,
    "time_zone": null,
    "geo_enabled": false,
    "lang": "en",
    "contributors_enabled": false,
    "is_translator": false,
    "profile_background_color": "null",
    "profile_background_image_url": "null",
    "profile_background_image_url_https": "null",
    "profile_background_tile": null,
    "profile_link_color": "null",
    "profile_sidebar_border_color": "null",
    "profile_sidebar_fill_color": "null",
    "profile_text_color": "null",
    "profile_use_background_image": null,
    "profile_image_url": "null",
    "profile_image_url_https": "https://pbs.twimg.com/profile_images/942858479592554497/BbazLO9L_normal.jpg",
    "profile_banner_url": "https://pbs.twimg.com/profile_banners/6253282/1497491515",
    "default_profile": false,
    "default_profile_image": false,
    "following": null,
    "follow_request_sent": null,
    "notifications": null
  }
}
coordinates Coordinates

Nullable. Represents the geographic location of this Tweet as reported by the user or client application. The inner coordinates array is formatted as geoJSON (longitude first, then latitude). Example:

"coordinates":
{
    "coordinates":
    [
        -75.14310264,
        40.05701649
    ],
    "type":"Point"
}
place Places

Nullable When present, indicates that the tweet is associated (but not necessarily originating from) a Place  Example:

"place":
{
  "attributes":{},
   "bounding_box":
  {
     "coordinates":
     [[
           [-77.119759,38.791645],
           [-76.909393,38.791645],
           [-76.909393,38.995548],
           [-77.119759,38.995548]
     ]],
     "type":"Polygon"
  },
   "country":"United States",
   "country_code":"US",
   "full_name":"Washington, DC",
   "id":"01fbe706f872cb32",
   "name":"Washington",
   "place_type":"city",
   "url":"http://api.twitter.com/1/geo/id/0172cb32.json"
}
quoted_status_id Int64

This field only surfaces when the Tweet is a quote Tweet. This field contains the integer value Tweet ID of the quoted Tweet. Example:

"quoted_status_id":1050119905717055488
quoted_status_id_str String

This field only surfaces when the Tweet is a quote Tweet. This is the string representation Tweet ID of the quoted Tweet. Example:

"quoted_status_id_str":"1050119905717055488"
is_quote_status Boolean

Indicates whether this is a Quoted Tweet. Example:

"is_quote_status":false
quoted_status Tweet This field only surfaces when the Tweet is a quote Tweet. This attribute contains the Tweet object of the original Tweet that was quoted.
retweeted_status Tweet Users can amplify the broadcast of Tweets authored by other users by Retweeting . Retweets can be distinguished from typical Tweets by the existence of a retweeted_status attribute. This attribute contains a representation of the original Tweet that was retweeted. Note that retweets of retweets do not show representations of the intermediary retweet, but only the original Tweet. (Users can also unretweet a retweet they created by deleting their retweet.)
quote_count Integer

Nullable. Indicates approximately how many times this Tweet has been quoted by Twitter users. Example:

"quote_count":33

Note: This object is only available with the Premium and Enterprise tier products.

reply_count Int

Number of times this Tweet has been replied to. Example:

"reply_count":30

Note: This object is only available with the Premium and Enterprise tier products.

retweet_count Int

Number of times this Tweet has been retweeted. Example:

"retweet_count":160
favorite_count Integer

Nullable. Indicates approximately how many times this Tweet has been liked by Twitter users. Example:

"favorite_count":295
entities Entities

Entities which have been parsed out of the text of the Tweet. Additionally see Entities in Twitter Objects . Example:

"entities":
{
    "hashtags":[],
    "urls":[],
    "user_mentions":[],
    "media":[],
    "symbols":[]
    "polls":[]
}
extended_entities Extended Entities

When between one and four native photos or one video or one animated GIF are in Tweet, contains an array 'media' metadata. This is also available in Quote Tweets. Additionally see Entities in Twitter Objects . Example:

"entities":
{
    "media":[]
}
favorited Boolean

Nullable. Indicates whether this Tweet has been liked by the authenticating user. Example:

"favorited":true
retweeted Boolean

Indicates whether this Tweet has been Retweeted by the authenticating user. Example:

"retweeted":false
possibly_sensitive Boolean

Nullable. This field only surfaces when a Tweet contains a link. The meaning of the field doesn’t pertain to the Tweet content itself, but instead it is an indicator that the URL contained in the Tweet may contain content or media identified as sensitive content. Example:

"possibly_sensitive":false
filter_level String

Indicates the maximum value of the filter_level parameter which may be used and still stream this Tweet. So a value of medium will be streamed on none, low, and medium streams.

Example:

"filter_level": "low"
lang String

Nullable. When present, indicates a BCP 47 language identifier corresponding to the machine-detected language of the Tweet text, or und if no language could be detected. 

 Example:

"lang": "en"
matching_rules Array of Rule Objects

Present in filtered products such as Twitter Search and PowerTrack. Provides the id and tag associated with the rule that matched the Tweet. More on matching rules here. With PowerTrack, more than one rule can match a Tweet. 

Example:

"matching_rules": " [{
        "tag": "twitterapi emojis",
        "id": 1050118621198921728,
        "id_str": "1050118621198921728"
    }]"

 

Additional Tweet attributes

Twitter APIs that provide Tweets (e.g. the GET statuses/lookup endpoint) may include these additional Tweet attributes:

Attribute Type Description
current_user_retweet Object

Perspectival Only surfaces on methods supporting the include_my_retweet parameter, when set to true. Details the Tweet ID of the user’s own retweet (if existent) of this Tweet. Example:

"current_user_retweet": {
  "id": 6253282,
  "id_str": "6253282"
}
scopes Object

A set of key-value pairs indicating the intended contextual delivery of the containing Tweet. Currently used by Twitter’s Promoted Products. Example:

"scopes":{"followers":false}
withheld_copyright Boolean

When present and set to “true”, it indicates that this piece of content has been withheld due to a DMCA complaint . Example:

"withheld_copyright": true
withheld_in_countries Array of String

When present, indicates a list of uppercase two-letter country codes this content is withheld from. Twitter supports the following non-country values for this field:

“XX” - Content is withheld in all countries “XY” - Content is withheld due to a DMCA request.

Example:

"withheld_in_countries": ["GR", "HK", "MY"]
withheld_scope String

When present, indicates whether the content being withheld is the “status” or a “user.”

Example:

"withheld_scope": "status"

 

Deprecated Attributes

Field Type Description
geo Object Deprecated. Nullable. Use the coordinates field instead. This deprecated attribute has its coordinates formatted as [lat, long], while all other Tweet geo is formatted as [long, lat].

 


Nested Tweet objects

In several cases, a Tweet object will included other nested objects.  If you are working with nested objects, then that JSON payload will contain multiple Tweet objects, and each Tweet object may contain its own objects. The root-level object will contain information on the type of action taken, i.e. whether it is a Retweet or a Quote Tweet, and may also contain an object that describes the 'original' Tweet being shared. Extended Tweets will include a nested extended object that extends beyond 140 characters, which was used to prevent breaking changes when the update was made in 2017. Each nested object dictionary is described below.

 

Retweets

Retweets always contain two Tweet objects. The 'original' Tweet being Retweeted is provided in a "retweeted_status" object. The root-level object encapsulates the Retweet itself, including a User object for the account taking the Retweet action and the time of the Retweet. Retweeting is an action to share a Tweet with your followers, and no other new content can be added. Also, a (new) location cannot be provided with a Retweet. While the 'original' Tweet may have geo-tagged, the Retweet "geo" and "place" objects will always be null.

Even before the introduction of Extended Tweets, the root-level "entities" object was in some cases truncated and incomplete due to the "RT @username " string being appended to Tweet message being Retweeted.  Note that if a Retweet gets Retweeted, the "retweet_status" will still point to the original Tweet, meaning the intermediate Retweet is not included. Similar behavior is seen when using twitter.com to 'display' a Retweet. If you copy the unique Tweet ID assigned to the Retweet 'action', the original Tweet is displayed. 

Below is an example structure for a Retweet. Again, when parsing Retweets, it is key to parse the "retweeted_status" object for complete (original) Tweet message and entity metadata.

      {
	"tweet": {
		"text": "RT @author original message",
		"user": {
			"screen_name": "Retweeter"
		},
		"retweeted_status": {
			"text": "original message",
			"user": {
				"screen_name": "OriginalTweeter"
			},
			"place": {},
			"entities": {},
			"extended_entities": {}
		}
	},
	"entities": {},
	"extended_entities": {}
}
    

 

Quote Tweets

Quote Tweets are much like Retweets except that they include a new Tweet message. These new messages can contain their own set of hashtags, links, and other "entities" metadata. Quote Tweets can also include location information shared by the user posting the Quote Tweet, along with media such as GIFs, videos, and photos.

Quote Tweets will contain at least two Tweet objects, and in some cases, three. The Tweet being Quoted, which itself can be a Quoted Tweet, is provided in a "quoted_status" object. The root-level object encapsulates the Quote Tweet itself, including a User object for the account taking the sharing action and the time of the Quote Tweet.

Note that Quote Tweets can now have photos, GIFs, or videos, added to them using the 'post Tweet' user-interface. When links to externally hosted media are included in the Quote Tweet message, the root-level "entities.urls" will describe those. Media attached to Quote Tweets will appear in the root-level "extended_entities" metadata.

When Quote Tweets were first launched, a shortened link (t.co URL) was appended to the 'original' Tweet message and provided in the root-level "text" field. In addition, metadata for that t.co URL was included in the root-level 'entities.urls' array. In May 2018, we changed this so that the shortened t.co URL to the quoted Tweet will not be included in the root-level "text" field. Second, the metadata for the quoted Tweet will not be included in the "entities.urls" metadata. Instead, URL metadata for the quoted Tweet will be in a new "quoted_status_permalink" object on the root-level (or top-level), so at the same level of the "quoted_status" object.

Below is an example structure for a Quote Tweet using this original formatting. 

      {
	"created_at": "Tue Feb 14 19:30:06 +0000 2017",
	"id_str": "831586333415976960",
	"text": "Definitely quotable! https:\/\/t.co\/J1LKrbHpWR",
	"user": {
		"screen_name": "happycamper"
	},
	"quoted_status_id_str": "831569219296882688",
	"quoted_status": {
		"created_at": "Tue Feb 14 18:22:06 +0000 2017",
		"id_str": "831569219296882688",
		"text": "This is a test of the tweeting system \ud83d\ude0e to update #supportdocs @twitterboulder here: https:\/\/t.co\/NRq9UrSzm0",
		"user": {
			"screen_name": "furiouscamper",
		},
		"place": {
			"id": "9a974dfc8efb32a0",
		},
		"entities": {
			"hashtags": [{
				"text": "supportdocs",
			}],
			"urls": [{
			}],
			"user_mentions": [{	}],
			"symbols": []
		},
	},
	"is_quote_status": true,
	"entities": {},
	"matching_rules": [{}]
}
    
      {
	"created_at": "Fri Jan 04 18:47:16 +0000 2019",
	"id_str": "1081260794069671936",
	"text": "Quote test https://t.co/CE4m1qs3NJ",
	"user": {
		"screen_name": "furiouscamper"
	},
	"place": null,
	"quoted_status_id_str": "1079578364904648705",
	"quoted_status": {
		"created_at": "Mon Dec 31 03:21:54 +0000 2018",
		"id_str": "1079578364904648705",
		"text": "AHHHHH",
		"user": {
			"screen_name": "infinite_scream"
		},
		"place": null,
		"is_quote_status": false,
		"quote_count": 1,
		"reply_count": 0,
		"retweet_count": 3,
		"favorite_count": 6,
		"entities": {
			"hashtags": [],
			"urls": [],
			"user_mentions": [],
			"symbols": []
		}
	},
	"quoted_status_permalink": {
		"url": "https://t.co/CE4m1qs3NJ",
		"expanded": "https://twitter.com/infinite_scream/status/1079578364904648705",
		"display": "twitter.com/infinite_screa…"
	},
	"is_quote_status": true,
	"quote_count": 0,
	"reply_count": 0,
	"retweet_count": 0,
	"favorite_count": 1,
	"entities": {}
}
    

 

Extended Tweets

JSON that describes Extended Tweets was introduced when 280-character Tweets were launched in November 2017. Tweet JSON was extended to encapsulate these longer messages, while not breaking the thousands of apps parsing these fundamental Twitter objects. To provide full backward compatibility, the original 140-character 'text' field, and the entity objects parsed from that, were retained. In the case of Tweets longer than 140 characters, this root-level 'text' field would become truncated and thus incomplete. Since the root-level 'entities' objects contain arrays of key metadata parsed from the 'text' message, such as included hashtags and links, these collections would be incomplete. For example, if a Tweet message was 200 characters long, with a hashtag included at the end, the legacy root-level 'entities.hashtags' array would not include it. 

A new 'extended_tweet' field was introduced to hold the longer Tweet messages and complete entity metadata. The "extended_tweet" object provides the "full_text" field that contains the complete, untruncated Tweet message when longer than 140 characters. The "extended_tweet" object also contains an "entities" object with complete arrays of hashtags, links, mentions, etc.

Extended Tweets are identified with a root-level "truncated" boolean. When true ("truncated": true), the "extended_tweet" fields should be parsed instead of the root-level fields.

Note in the JSON example below that the root-level "text" field is truncated and the root-level "entities.hashtags" array is empty even though the Tweet message includes three hashtags. Since this is an Extended Tweet, the "truncated" field is set to true, and the "extended_tweet" object provides complete "full_text" and "entities" Tweet metadata.

      {
	"created_at": "Thu May 10 17:41:57 +0000 2018",
	"id_str": "994633657141813248",
	"text": "Just another Extended Tweet with more than 140 characters, generated as a documentation example, showing that [\"tru… https://t.co/U7Se4NM7Eu",
	"display_text_range": [0, 140],
	"truncated": true,
	"user": {
		"id_str": "944480690",
		"screen_name": "FloodSocial"
	},
	"extended_tweet": {
		"full_text": "Just another Extended Tweet with more than 140 characters, generated as a documentation example, showing that [\"truncated\": true] and the presence of an \"extended_tweet\" object with complete text and \"entities\" #documentation #parsingJSON #GeoTagged https://t.co/e9yhQTJSIA",
		"display_text_range": [0, 249],
		"entities": {
			"hashtags": [{
				"text": "documentation",
				"indices": [211, 225]
			}, {
				"text": "parsingJSON",
				"indices": [226, 238]
			}, {
				"text": "GeoTagged",
				"indices": [239, 249]
			}]
		}

	},
	"entities": {
		"hashtags": []
	}
}
    
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